I secoli bui del Medioevo.
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L'incredibile storia degli imperatori romani. Continue shopping. Item s unavailable for purchase. Please review your cart. You can remove the unavailable item s now or we'll automatically remove it at Checkout. Remove FREE. Unavailable for purchase. Continue shopping Checkout Continue shopping. Sort By: Bestsellers. By the third century BC, it had become a large and powerful city, with monumental temples, public buildings and grand houses.
It had conquered the whole of Italy and was poised to establish an empire.
But how did it accomplish this historic transformation? The prefect of the praetorium Florentius was condemned in absentia. The conviction of Ursulus, an officer in charge of the cash and disliked by the troop, was contested by many. Gaudentius, ancient opponent of Julian and Artemius, ex governor of Egypt guilty of serious crimes were also sentenced to death. Every luxury was eliminated by the imperial court.
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Great part of the personnel was dismissed. Julian remained with 17 collaborators. The personnel in charge of the secret police was also reduced. Shows were banished at court, except for New Year's Day.
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Julian loved neither the theater nor the games of the circus. He named consuls for the year Mamertinus and Nevitta. Having, by mistake, performed a consular function, he inflicted to himself a fine of 10 gold pounds. He gave back many powers to the Senate of Constantinople. Autonomy to the cities. Julian issued an edict to return civil and religious power to the cities. The lands that State and Church had stolen were returned to the city authorities. The privilege of the Christian clergy, who was exempted to contribute to the management of the cities, was eliminated.
He reduced the right to benefit from some free service of transport of state. The bishops stopped traveling at the expenses of the contributors. Julian established that the taxes had not to be receive with force, but it would be necessary to submit to the good wish of citizens. He prescribed an extension of outstanding taxes.
He established that the tax collectors every five years would have had one year of exemption from the job. In such way they could have been tried for their possible embezzlements. The guilty ones of peculation would have been submitted to torture. Freedom of religion. With the edict of February 4 th the freedom of religion was proclaimed, denied by the previous Christian emperors particularly the edicts of and and that would also have been denied by the following Christian emperors up to the declaration of the Christianity as religion of state made by Theodosius and to the definitive suppression of the paganism after the battle on the Frigidus river.
There will pass more than thousand years before people return to speak of freedom of religion in the West. Julian called to collaborate his Neo-platonic teachers Maximus and Priscus. Salustius wrote an essay of philosophy of the religion: De diis et mundo. The pagan temples were reopened.
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The properties forfeited by the Christian emperorswere returned to them. Benefits were granted for the reconstruction of the destroyed temples. Pagan monasteries and a pagan clergy were constituted.
Julian stated the right readings for the clergy: Pythagoras, Plato, Aristotle, the school of Crisippus and Zeno. He did not recommend indecent poets as Archilochos and Hipponax, the ancient comedy, the erotic writers, the works of Epikuros and Pyrrhon. The two lists coincide with those of Basilius, Christian bishop of Caesarea of Cappadocia. He exhorted the Christians to stop their internal discords.
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He allowed the reentry of those people who had been declared heretics and forced to the exile. The subsidies granted to the Christian churches were eliminated.
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He forced those people who had destroyed a church belonging to an opposing sect to reconstruct it at their own expenses. The rhetoric made part of the classical tradition and Julian held ethically unacceptable to publicize values to which he didn't stick. Libanius writes: "He held in fact that the letters and the cult of gods were as brothers".
This was the only action of Julian that limited somehow the liberty of the Christians. After the death of Julian, the Christians took possession of classical literature, but they separated the letter from the spirit, the rhetorical discourse from the way of living, the form from the human and religious content. He began the reconstruction of the Jewish temple in Jerusalem. Sporadically local episodes of violence happened between Christians and pagans. At Alexandria the Aryan bishop George, at the news of the sentence of Arthemius with whom he had tightly collaborated, was killed by the crowd both for political that religious reasons.
Julian addressed a letter of blame to the Alexandrines. At Arethusa, in Phoenicia, the Christian bishop Mark destroyed a pagan temple and inflicted many damages to the pagans. Julian condemned him to reconstruct the temple. The bishop refused and he was pursued by the crowd. Against the cynical philosophers who, even though belonging to the same pagan environment of Julian, had criticized his politics he wrote a treatise. Julian went to Antiochia to organize the expedition against the Persians. He knew that the god Apollo, in his temple of Daphne, didn't pronounce prophecies anymore since when Gallus had built the Christian church of S.
Babylas in front of the temple. He ordered that the remains of Babylas were removed from the church. The Christians organized a demonstration. The demonstrators were arrested and shortly after released. But on 22 October of the temple of Apollo was set on fire. It was never proved that they had been the Christians. No persecution was started against the Christians. Julian inherited a state of hostility with Persia. Constantius II had lost a lot of fortresses and had died while he was preparing a new war. Julian took back the ancient ideal of Alexander the Great: the union of the West with the East.
On 5 March of the army of Julian left Antiochia bound for the Euphrates. Another army with Unfortunately the two armies will never meet. On March 27 Julian reached Callinicus where he met the fleet coming from Samosata. On April 1 he went beyond the Euphrates and cut the bridge.